Today, India is largely self-sufficient in milk production. [68] [69] Until the country`s independence in 1947, milk production and trade was almost exclusively in the household sector. Isolated attempts to establish dairy cooperatives were made in the 1930s and 1940s, but this was not successful until after independence. [70] Milk production in India roughly tripled between 1968 and 2001 to 80 million tonnes per year. [71] In 2004/05, milk production was estimated at 90.7 million tonnes. [72] In 2010, the dairy industry accounted for 20% of India`s gross agricultural output. [69] The passage of cattle began in India in 1875, although it did not receive much attention from policymakers until 1961. [89] Since 1965, the crossing of native breeds with exotic breeds has been carried out on a large scale to improve milk production. [90] However, these programs have been highly controversial.

[91] Similar regulations in other countries have sparked massive controversy and debate between vegans and the dairy industry. It was recommended to use terms such as “extract” or “drink” instead of “milk” for almond, soy, oat, etc. milk. The history of dairy products on the Indian subcontinent dates back about 8,000 years, to the first domestication of zebu[1], which would have originated in India. [2] At the beginning of the Indus Valley civilization (ca. 3300 – ca. 1300 BC), zebu had been fully domesticated and used for their milk. They are abundantly represented in osteological remains and ceramics of the time. The water buffalo is also native to South Asia. While wild populations existed long before domestication, at the time of the Indus Valley civilization they were domesticated and used for ploughing and milk.

Goats and sheep were also domesticated in the Indus Valley, although it is unclear whether they were milked. [3] The dairy industry in India is unique among dairy producing countries in terms of its high proportion of buffalo milk. In 2013, buffalo accounted for more than half of all milk produced in the country,[77] although this number has dropped to less than 50% in the face of growing consumer demand for cow`s milk. [78] Although there are a number of recognized buffalo breeds, more than half of bison are inconspicuous. [79] The Murrah is the most popular dairy breed,[80] and has also attracted demand from other countries. [81] Nili Ravi and Jafarabadi buffaloes also perform well. [82] According to the literature of the sutras, rice boiled with milk or cottage cheese continued to be a common food in the period from about 800 to about 300 BC. In the past, cows were milked twice a day. Those who were pregnant or went through their heat cycle or suckled a calf from another cow were not milked. The preparation of Payasa is also mentioned.

[13] Madhuparka – a mixture of honey with cottage cheese or ghee was used to greet guests. The preparation of a candy with clarified butter as one of the ingredients is also mentioned. [14] Buddhist and Jain texts of the time also consider milk and its products to be important foods, rice pudding being particularly preferred. You are talking about cottage cheese, butter and buttermilk preparations. Camel and goat milk was also used, in addition to that of cows and buffaloes. [15] Fun fact: The word “milk” had a second definition for “the white sap of certain plants” in the first edition of Noah Webster`s American Dictionary of the English Language in 1828. Additive coagulation processes give Paneer and Chhena. Paneer is made by adding an acidic coagulant to the heated milk, then pressing and emptying the mixture under mechanical pressure.

[103] Paneer was historically produced in households with high-fat buffalo milk and is one of the most commonly used dairy products. [104] It is estimated that 5% of all milk is processed into paneer. [87] Chhena is another traditional dairy product that is also made by adding an organic acid coagulant to warm milk. It is similar to paneer, but softer and therefore shapeless. It is not consumed directly, but is used as a base or filler material for the preparation of a variety of Indian sweets such as rasgulla, rasmalai and sandesh. Chhena production in 2009 was estimated at 200,000 tonnes per year. [32] Milk plays a role in Ayurveda, a form of alternative medicine practiced in India. [57] Ayurveda recommends daily consumption of milk because of its good digestive and soothing properties.

[58] In 2018, fluid milk consumption was estimated at 67.7 million tonnes and increased by 6-7 million tonnes per year. Ghee is the most consumed among value-added dairy products. Demand for fat-free milk powder (NFDM) and butter was estimated at 600,000 tonnes and 5.6 million tonnes respectively. [109] The demand for pasteurized milk produced in the formal (organized) sector has increased, likely due to its perceived safety relative to milk produced in the unorganized sector. [110] National Legislation, Regulations and Standards for Milk and Milk Products As a result, these two dairy products (powdered milk and condensed milk) are now obliged to bear the ISI mark. India has the highest level of milk production and consumption of any country. [59] [60] Annual production in 2018 was 186 million tonnes[update]. [61] Livestock health certification is carried out by the Veterinary Council of India, which is funded by DAH&D. The Veterinary Council of India makes regulations for the inspection of dairy cows and for measures to control the spread of diseases and strengthen the herd.

[115] Livestock farming in the dairy industry is also regulated by the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, which sets out guidelines for the milking, artificial insemination and transportation of cattle. These policies are monitored and enforced by DAH&D. [116] The slaughter of dairy cattle and cows in particular is banned in many states in India, and in 2017 the Union government published the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Livestock Market Regulation) Rules 2017, which prohibit the sale of lactating cattle for slaughter. [117] The economic impact of the dairy industry in India is significant. Most of the milk produced comes from buffaloes; Cow`s milk is a little less than a second and goat`s milk a third distant. A wide variety of dairy products are produced in India. Milk imports into India are negligible and subject to tariffs. The domestic industry is regulated by government agencies such as the Ministry of Livestock, Dairy Products and Fisheries; National Dairy Development Council; and Food Safety and Standards Authority of India.